Trainou Observatory, France (TRN)

Trainou Observatory, France (TRN)


Route de Fay-aux-Loges, Trainou 45470, France
Lat: 47.96°N, Lon: 2.11°E, Alt: 131 m above see level
Sampling heights: 5, 50, 100, 180 m above ground level


The Trainou tower station is dedicated to greenhouse gas measurements. It is located in the Orléans forest (47.96°N, 2.11°E, 131 meter above see level), about 15 km northeast of the city of Orléans (116 000 inhabitants), approximatly 100 km south of Paris. The station surroundings is mostly covered by forest (30 %) and agriculture fields (50 %) (INSEE 2008, National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies, 2008). The Trainou station has been initiated in 2006 in the framework of the European projects CHIOTTO (Continuous HIgh-precisiOn Tall Tower Observations of greenhouse gases) and CarboEurope IP.
The site benefits from a tall telecommunication tower belonging to TdF (Télécommunication de France). The tall tower allows atmospheric measurements at 5, 50, 100 and 180 meters above ground level. The station has initially been designed for high precision and continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6, CO and H2 at the four measurement levels of the tower. Since its initial installation, regular update has allowed to add in situ GHG proxy measurements such as Radon-222 (2009), 14CO2 integrated over 15 days (2008) or COS (2016-2020). SF6 and H2 measurements have been respectively stopped in 2013 and 2020.
In addition to the in situ measurements, total column abundances of CO2, CH4, CO and N2O are retrieved since 2009 in the framework of TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) network. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) is managed by IUP Bremen (Germany).
A complete description of the in situ instrumentation and associated time series from 2006 to 2013 in given by Schmidt et al. 2014.
The Trainou station has become one of the major greenhouse gas measurements station in France and Europe. Year 2018 has been a hinge year for the station as it has been integrated to the ICOS (Integrated Carbon Observation System) network making it one of the only few European station being part of two major networks for GHG measurements: ICOS and TCCON.

Measured species

In situ and continuous : CO2, CH4, N2O, CO and 222Rn
Integrated : 14CO2 (over 15 days)
Total column : CO2, CH4, N2O and CO


M. Lopez, M. Ramonet


Relevant publications

Belviso, S., C. Abadie, D. Montagne, D. Hadjar, D. Tropée, L. Vialettes, V. Kazan, M. Delmotte, F. Maignan, M. Remaud, M. Ramonet, M. Lopez, C. Yver-Kwok, and P. Ciais (2022), Carbonyl sulfide (COS) emissions in two agroecosystems in central France, Plos One, 17(12), e0278584, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0278584.

Belviso, S., B. Lebegue, M. Ramonet, V. Kazan, I. Pison, A. Berchet, M. Delmotte, C. Yver-Kwok, D. Montagne, and P. Ciais (2020), A top-down approach of sources and non-photosynthetic sinks of carbonyl sulfide from atmospheric measurements over multiple years in the Paris region (France), Plos One, 15(2), e0228419, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0228419.

Broquet, G., F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, N. Kadygrov, M. Alemanno, F. Apadula, S. Hammer, L. Haszpra, F. Meinhardt, J. Morguí, J. Necki, S. Piacentino, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, R. Thompson, A. Vermeulen, C. Yver, and P. Ciais (2013), Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements: reliability of the uncertainty estimates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(17), 9039-9056, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9039-2013.

Geibel, M. C., J. Messerschmidt, C. Gerbig, T. Blumenstock, H. Chen, F. Hase, O. Kolle, J. V. Lavric, J. Notholt, M. Palm, M. Rettinger, M. Schmidt, R. Sussmann, T. Warneke, and D. G. Feist (2012), Calibration of column-averaged CH4 over European TCCON FTS sites with airborne in-situ measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 8763-8775.

Haeffelin, M., F. Angelini, Y. Morille, G. Martucci, S. Frey, G. P. Gobbi, S. Lolli, C. D. O’Dowd, L. Sauvage, I. Xueref-Rémy, B. Wastine, and D. G. Feist (2012), Evaluation of Mixing-Height Retrievals from Automatic Profiling Lidars and Ceilometers in View of Future Integrated Networks in Europe, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 143(1), 49-75, doi:10.1007/s10546-011-9643-z.

Koffi, E. N., P. Bergamaschi, U. Karstens, M. Krol, A. Segers, M. Schmidt, I. Levin, A. T. Vermeulen, R. E. Fisher, V. Kazan, H. Klein Baltink, D. Lowry, G. Manca, H. A. Meijer, J. Moncrieff, S. Pal, M. Ramonet, H. A. Scheeren, and A. G. Williams (2016), Evaluation of the boundary layer dynamics of the TM5 model over Europe, Geoscientific Model Development, 9(9), 3137 – 3160, doi:10.5194/gmd-9-3137-2016.

Lopez, M. (2012), Estimation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à différente échelles en France à l’aide d’observations de haute précision, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Sud.

Lopez, M., M. Schmidt, C. Yver, C. Messager, D. Worthy, V. Kazan, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, and P. Ciais (2012), Seasonal variation of N2O emissions in France inferred from atmospheric N2O and 222 Rn measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D14), n/a-n/a, doi:10.1029/2012jd017703.

Messerschmidt, J., M. Geibel, T. Blumenstock, H. Chen, N. Deutscher, A. Engel, D. Feist, C. Gerbig, M. Gisi, F. Hase, K. Katrynski, O. Kolle, J. Lavrič, J. Notholt, M. Palm, M. Ramonet, M. Rettinger, M. Schmidt, R. Sussmann, G. Toon, F. Truong, T. Warneke, P. Wennberg, D. Wunch, and I. Xueref-Remy (2011), Calibration of TCCON column-averaged CO2 the first aircraft campaign over European TCCON sites, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11(21), 10765-10777, doi:10.5194/acp-11-10765-2011.

Pal, S., M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Gibert, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Ciais (2015), Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222 Rn concentration at a rural site in France, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 120(2), 623-643, doi:10.1002/2014jd022322.

Pison, I., A. Berchet, M. Saunois, P. Bousquet, G. Broquet, S. Conil, M. Delmotte, A. Ganesan, O. Laurent, D. Martin, S. O ‘ Doherty, M. Ramonet, T. G. Spain, A. Vermeulen, and C. Yver Kwok (2018), How a European network may help with estimating methane emissions on the French national scale, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(5), 3779-3798, doi:10.5194/acp-18-3779-2018.

Resovsky, A., M. Ramonet, L. Rivier, J. Tarniewicz, P. Ciais, M. Steinbacher, I. Mammarella, M. Mölder, M. Heliasz, D. Kubistin, M. Lindauer, J. Müller-Williams, S. Conil, and R. Engelen (2021), An algorithm to detect non-background signals in greenhouse gas time series from European tall tower and mountain stations, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(9), 6119 – 6135, doi:10.5194/amt-14-6119-2021.

Schmidt, M., M. Lopez, C. Kwok, C. Messager, M. Ramonet, B. Wastine, C. Vuillemin, F. Truong, B. Gal, E. Parmentier, O. Cloue, and P. Ciais (2014), High-precision quasi-continuous atmospheric greenhouse gas measurements at Trainou tower (Orléans forest, France), Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 7, 2283 – 2296, doi:10.5194/amt-7-2283-2014.

Yver-Kwok, C., C. Philippon, P. Bergamaschi, T. Biermann, F. Calzolari, H. Chen, S. Conil, P. Cristofanelli, M. Delmotte, J. Hatakka, et al. (2021), Evaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling process, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(1), 89-116, doi:10.5194/amt-14-89-2021.

Yver, C., M. Schmidt, P. Bousquet, and M. Ramonet (2011), Measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the Trainou tall tower, Tellus B – Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 63(1), 52-63, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2010.00520.x.

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