Ile Amsterdam, pointe Bénédicte (TAAF), France
Lat: -37.8°N, Lon: 77.54°E, Alt: 55m above see level
Sampling heights: 20 m above ground level
Amsterdam Island called New-Amsterdam island until 1965, is a small French island located in the south of the Indian Ocean, 1368 km north north-east away from the Kerguelen islands and 2713 km South-East away from Mauritius. Together with Saint-Paul Island, located 91 km more South, they form the Saint Paul and Amsterdam islands district, one of the 5 districts from the Terres Australes et Antarctiques Françaises (TAAF, the 4 others being Crozet islands, Kerguelen Islands, Adélie Land and Éparses Islands).
The Amsterdam island observatory is most probably the cleanest place on Earth, far away from direct pollution sources. It is a reference site for the southern hemisphere atmospheric record and the longest one for CO2.
CO2 concentrations have been measured continuously on site since 1981, in the middle of the subantarctic Indian Ocean. This program was initiated by A. Gaudry and G. Lambert team and has been maintained without interruption until now with support provided by the French Polar institute (IPEV, Institut Polaire Paul Emile Victor), Scientific Research National Center (CNRS / INSU, Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers) and the French Atomic agency (CEA, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux energies alternatives). CO2 levels measured over the last 40 years rise from 339 ppm over 400 ppm (+18%), resulting in a mean growth rate of about 1.75 ppm/year.
In addition to CO2, other atmospheric measurements have been added or conducted on site such as CH4, CO, N2O, SF6, H2 in flaks (still ongoing). Radon integrated measurements are ongoing since 1981 as well.
CO, CH4 continuous measurements started in January 2012, and N2O continuous measurements started in 2018. Meteorological data are also available for the full period.
In situ and continuous: CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, O3 and 222Rn
Flasks: CO2, CH4, CO, N2O, SF6, H2.
Meteorological parameters: Temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction.
M.Delmotte, M. Lopez, M. Ramonet
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