Finokalia Observatory, Crete, Greece (FKL)

Finokalia Observatory, Crete, Greece (FKL)


Crete, Greece
Lat: 35.33°N, Lon: 25.67°E, Alt: 250 m above see level
Sampling height: 15 m above ground level


The Finokalia station is located on the north coast of Crete. The nearest large urban centre is Heraklion with 150 000 inhabitants located 70 km west of Finokalia. The station is at the top of a hilly elevation (250 m asl) facing the sea within a sector 270° to 90°. The nearest village with 10 inhabitants is at 3 km to the south of the station. No significant human activities occur at a distance shorter than 15km within the above mentioned sector.

The area is characterized by the existence of two well-distinguished seasons equally distributed through out the year: the dry season (from April to September) and the wet season (from October to April). Based on a classification of 5-days backward trajectories performed over a 8-year period (1997-2003), the dry season is mainly characterized (up to 90%) by winds of N/NW direction (Central and Eastern Europe and Balkans) and high speed. During the wet season the prevalence of the N/NW sector is less pronounced while important transport from Sahara (S/SW winds; occurrence up to 20%) occurs.

The station is handled by the Department of Chemistry, from Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, University of Crete. It is part of the EUSAAR and ACTRIS Network and reports to the EMEP (database). There is the possibility for Trans-National Access (TNA) within the framework of ACTRIS.

Measured species

In situ and continuous: CO2, CH4, CO and 222Rn


M. Lopez, M. Ramonet, M. Kanakidou


Site Web

Finokalia station web site

Relevant publications

Dimitriou, K., A. Bougiatioti, M. Ramonet, F. Pierros, P. Michalopoulos, E. Liakakou, S. Solomos, P.-Y. Quehe, M. Delmotte, E. Gerasopoulos, M. Kanakidou, and N. Mihalopoulos (2021), Greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4) at an urban background site in Athens, Greece: Levels, sources and impact of atmospheric circulation, Atmos Environ, 253, 118372, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2021.118372.

El yazidi, A., M. Ramonet, P. Ciais, G. Broquet, I. Pison, A. Abbaris, D. Brunner, S. Conil, M. Delmotte, F. Gheusi, F. Guerin, L. Hazan, N. Kachroudi, G. Kouvarakis, N. Mihalopoulos, L. Rivier, and D. Serça (2018), Identification of spikes associated with local sources in continuous time series of atmospheric CO, CO2 and CH4, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 11(3), 1599-1614, doi:10.5194/amt-11-1599-2018.

Hildebrandt, L., G. J. Engelhart, C. Mohr, E. Kostenidou, V. A. Lanz, A. Bougiatioti, P. F. DeCarlo, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, N. Mihalopoulos, N. M. Donahue, and S. N. Pandis (2010), Aged organic aerosol in the Eastern Mediterranean: the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment-2008, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(9), 4167-4186, doi:10.5194/acp-10-4167-2010.

Lee, B. H., E. Kostenidou, L. Hildebrandt, I. Riipinen, G. J. Engelhart, C. Mohr, P. F. DeCarlo, N. Mihalopoulos, A. S. H. Prevot, U. Baltensperger, and S. N. Pandis (2010), Measurement of the ambient organic aerosol volatility distribution: application during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment (FAME-2008), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10(24), 12149-12160, doi:10.5194/acp-10-12149-2010.

Pikridas, M., A. Bougiatioti, L. Hildebrandt, G. J. Engelhart, E. Kostenidou, C. Mohr, A. S. H. Prévôt, G. Kouvarakis, P. Zarmpas, J. F. Burkhart, B.-H. Lee, M. Psichoudaki, N. Mihalopoulos, C. Pilinis, A. Stohl, U. Baltensperger, M. Kulmala, and S. N. Pandis (2010), The Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment – 2008 (FAME-08): an overview Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 6793-6806.

Ricaud, P., R. Zbinden, V. Catoire, V. Brocchi, F. Dulac, E. Hamonou, J. Canonici, L. El Amraoui, S. Massart, B. Piguet, et al. (2018), The GLAM Airborne Campaign across the Mediterranean Basin, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99(2), 361 – 380, doi:10.1175/bams-d-16-0226.1.