Puy de Dôme Observatory, France (PUY)

Puy de Dôme Observatory, France (PUY)


Lat: 45.7719°N, Lon: 2.9658°E, Alt: 1465 m above see level
Sampling heights: 10 m above ground level


The Puy de Dôme station is operated by CNRS-INSU and University Clermont Auvergne (UCA). Puy de Dôme is the highest point of the Chaîne des Puys, which comprises 80 volcanoes aligned north to south on a 3 to 5 km wide strip of land, over 45 km in length. It is surrounded by a protected area where fields and forests are predominant. The city of Clermont-Ferrand (150 000 inhabitants) is located 16 km east of the station at 396m a.s.l. Previous work at the station shows that the influence of the city on the Puy de Dôme measurements remains undetected and that the station is representative of the regional background (Asmi et al. 2011 ; Henne et al., 2010). During winter/spring time and all year during nighttime, LIDAR measurements show that the station lies in the free troposphere/residual layer and air masses are exempt from the influence of local pollution.

The atmospheric research station hosts different analyzers for long-term atmospheric measurements of GHG, CO, O3, aerosols, radon-222, clouds microphysics and radionuclides. The station has international labeling EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme), GAW, and is part of the European ACTRIS and ICOS measurement networks. The station has been labelled in ICOS-ERIC on 31 may 2018.

Atmospheric CO2 mole fractions have been continuously measured at PUY since 2000. NDIR analyzer was used from 2000, and then replaced by a CRDS instrument in 2011which measures both CO2 and CH4. CO2, CH4, N2O and SF6 have also been measured from 2010 to 2015 with a gas chromatograph system (Lopez et al., 2015).

Measured species

In situ and continuous: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO and 222Rn
Flask sampling: CO2, CH4, N2O, CO, H2, SF6 (weekly basis)


A.Colomb, M. Lopez, M. Ramonet


Site Web

Puy de Dôme – OPGC

Relevant publications

Baray, J.-L., L. Deguillaume, A. Colomb, K. Sellegri, E. Freney, C. Rose, J. Van Baelen, J.-M. Pichon, D. Picard, P. Fréville, et al. (2020), Cézeaux-Aulnat-Opme-Puy De Dôme: a multi-site for the long-term survey of the tropospheric composition and climate change, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 13(6), 3413-3445, doi:10.5194/amt-13-3413-2020.

Bergamaschi, P., U. Karstens, A. Manning, M. Saunois, A. Tsuruta, A. Berchet, A. Vermeulen, T. Arnold, G. Janssens-Maenhout, S. Hammer, et al. (2018), Inverse modelling of European CH4 emissions during 2006–2012 using different inverse models and reassessed atmospheric observations, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 18(2), 901 – 920, doi:10.5194/acp-18-901-2018.

Broquet, G., F. Chevallier, F.-M. Bréon, N. Kadygrov, M. Alemanno, F. Apadula, S. Hammer, L. Haszpra, F. Meinhardt, J. Morguí, J. Necki, S. Piacentino, M. Ramonet, M. Schmidt, R. Thompson, A. Vermeulen, C. Yver, and P. Ciais (2013), Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements: reliability of the uncertainty estimates, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(17), 9039-9056, doi:10.5194/acp-13-9039-2013.

Hadad, D., J.-L. Baray, N. Montoux, J. Van Baelen, P. Fréville, J.-M. Pichon, P. Bosser, M. Ramonet, C. Yver Kwok, N. Bègue, and V. Duflot (2018), Surface and Tropospheric Water Vapor Variability and Decadal Trends at Two Supersites of CO-PDD (Cézeaux and Puy de Dôme) in Central France, Atmosphere, 9(8), 302, doi:10.3390/atmos9080302.

Kountouris, P., C. Gerbig, C. Rödenbeck, U. Karstens, T. F. Koch, and M. Heimann (2018), Atmospheric CO2 inversions on the mesoscale using data-driven prior uncertainties: quantification of the European terrestrial CO2 fluxes, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 18(4), 3047-3064, doi:10.5194/acp-18-3047-2018.

Lopez, M. (2012), Estimation des émissions de gaz à effet de serre à différente échelles en France à l’aide d’observations de haute précision, PhD thesis, Université Paris-Sud.

Lopez, M., M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, J. L. Bonne, A. Colomb, V. Kazan, P. Laj, and J. M. Pichon (2015), Three years of semicontinuous greenhouse gas measurements at the Puy de Dôme station (central France), Atmospheric Measurement Techniques(8), 3941-3958, doi:10.5194/amt-8-3941-2015.

Lopez, M., M. Schmidt, C. Yver, C. Messager, D. Worthy, V. Kazan, M. Ramonet, P. Bousquet, and P. Ciais (2012), Seasonal variation of N 2 O emissions in France inferred from atmospheric N 2 O and 222 Rn measurements, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 117(D14), n/a-n/a, doi:10.1029/2012jd017703.

Pison, I., P. Bousquet, F. Chevallier, S. Szopa, and D. Hauglustaine (2009), Multi-species inversion of CH4, CO and H2 emissions from surface measurements, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9(14), 5281-5297, doi:10.5194/acp-9-5281-2009.

Ramonet, M., P. Ciais, T. Aalto, C. Aulagnier, F. Chevallier, D. Cipriano, T. Conway, L. Haszpra, V. Kazan, F. Meinhardt, J.-D. Paris, M. Schmid, P. Simmonds, I. Xueref-Remy, and J. Necki (2010), A recent build-up of atmospheric CO2 over Europe. Part 1: observed signals and possible explanations, Tellus B – Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 62(1), 1-13, doi:10.1111/j.1600-0889.2009.00442.x.

Ramonet, M., P. Ciais, F. Apadula, J. Bartyzel, A. Bastos, P. Bergamaschi, P.-É. Blanc, D. Brunner, L. C. D. Torchiarolo, F. Calzolari, et al. (2020), The fingerprint of the summer 2018 drought in Europe on ground-based atmospheric CO2 measurements, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 375(1810), 20190513, doi:10.1098/rstb.2019.0513

Ramonet, M., A. Wagner, M. Schulz, Q. Errera, H. J. Eskes, S. Basart, A.Benedictow, Y. Bennouna, A.-M. Blechschmidt, S. Chabrillat, Y. Y.  Christophe, E. Cuevas, A. El-Yazidi, H. Flentje, P. Fritzsche, U. I. K.M. Hansen, J.Kapsomenakis, B. Langerock, A. Richter, N. Sudarchikova, V. Thouret, T.Warneke, and C. Zerefos (January 2021), Validation report of the CAMS near-real-time global atmospheric composition service: Period June – August 2020, Report, edited by opernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS)

Rose, C., J. Boulon, M. Hervo, H. Holmgren, E. Asmi, M. Ramonet, P. Laj, and K. Sellegri (2013), Long-term observations of cluster ion concentration, sources and sinks in clear sky conditions at the high-altitude site of the Puy de Dôme, France, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(22), 11573 – 11594, doi:10.5194/acp-13-11573-2013.

Sturm, P., M. Leuenberger, and M. Schmidt (2005), Atmospheric O-2, CO2 and delta C-13 observations from the remote sites Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, and Puy de Dome, France, Geophysical Research Letters, 32(17).

Yver-Kwok, C., C. Philippon, P. Bergamaschi, T. Biermann, F. Calzolari, H. Chen, S. Conil, P. Cristofanelli, M. Delmotte, J. Hatakka, et al. (2021), Evaluation and optimization of ICOS atmosphere station data as part of the labeling process, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 14(1), 89-116, doi:10.5194/amt-14-89-2021.

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